One of the most common ways that infants are born with brain damage is by way of asphyxiation. Injuries during the delivery process occur in just over one percent of cesarean section births.
Umbilical cord compression
This occurs when blood flow to the unborn child is blocked by an obstruction or pressure in the umbilical cord. Sometimes, the umbilical cord can become compressed on its own. This happens in about ten percent of all deliveries. In some severe cases, an emergency cesarean section may be required.
The brachial plexus is actually a name for a group of nerves located along the spinal cord. These nerves are connected to the shoulders, arms and hands. An injury to this group of nerves during childbirth can necessitate prolonged physical therapy and surgery in some severe cases.
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
This is a condition in which the brain is not able to get the oxygen that it needs. Most commonly, this injury occurs at birth and can actually be fatal. Some causes can be: difficult childbirth, blocked blood vessel, umbilical cord strangulation, complications from anesthesia and more.